in a harbour;1 although there may be no [mud]2 now3 it may well be assumed that it had fallen off with the drippings.4 Samuel's father made ritual baths for his daughters in the days of Nisan5 and mats6 in the days of Tishri.7
R. Giddal citing Rab ruled: If a woman gave to her child some cooked food and then performed her ritual immersion and ascended from the water,8 her immersion has no validity,9 because, though there may be no food10 now,11 it may well be assumed that it had fallen off with the drippings.12
Rami b. Abba13 ruled: Scars14 constitute no interposition15 during the first16 three days;17 henceforth they constitute an interposition.
Mar Ukba ruled: Pus within the eye constitutes no interposition when it is moist, but when it is dry it constitutes one. When is it called 'dry'? — From the time it begins to turn yellow.
Samuel ruled: Stibium within the eye constitutes no interposition but on the outside of the eye it constitutes one. If a woman's eyes were twitching it constitutes no interposition even if it is on the outside of the eye.18
R. Johanan ruled: If a woman19 opened her eyes too wide20 or shut them too closely,21 her immersion has no validity.
Resh Lakish ruled: A woman must perform immersion only when standing in her natural position;22 as we have learnt:23 A man24 is inspected25 in the same position as when he hoes26 or27 gathers olives;28 and a woman24 is inspected25 in the same position as when she weaves29 or27 suckles her child.28
Rabbah b. R. Huna30 stated, 'One knotted hair constitutes an interposition,31
Original footnotes renumbered.
- Where mud, stirred up by the incoming and outgoing ships, might cling to her body and constitute an interposition between it and the water.
- On the woman's body.
- After she has emerged from the water.
- Beridyoni. Aliter: Into the stream.
- When the flowing river, swollen by rainwater, could not be used for the purpose since no ritual immersion may be performed in rainwater that is not collected and stationary.
- To spread under the feet of the bathers so as to protect them from the river mud which might cling to their feet and constitute an interposition. Aliter: He hung up mats on the river shore, to serve as screens for the bathers. Aliter: He put up reed tents; v. Ned., (Sonc. ed.), p. 129 notes.
- When the river contained its normal flow (cf. prev. n. but one mut. mut.).
- With nothing of the food clinging to it.
- Lit., 'did not go up for her', since it is possible that some of the food clung to her body during the immersion when it constitutes an interposition.
- On the woman's body.
- After she has emerged from the water.
- Beridyoni. Aliter: Into the stream.
- MS.M. Hama.
- Lit., 'the patches of the lancet', 'the marks of the punctures'.
- In ritual immersion.
- Lit., 'until'
- Following the bleeding. Being tender they are regarded as a part of the body.
- Because the frequent movement of the eye-lids prevents the accumulation of the matter and no interposition can be formed.
- When performing immersion.
- Thus forming above the eye a fold that prevents the water from penetrating to every part of that region.
- Forming a fold below the eye (cf. prev. n.).
- Sc. she must neither press her arms to her body nor her legs or feet to each other, since thereby she prevents the water from reaching parts that are normally exposed; nor need she stretch any natural fold or expose any concealed part to enable the water to reach every part of it, since these regions are normally concealed.
- Neg. II, 4.
- Afflicted with leprosy.
- By the examining priest.
- Sc. if the eruption is high in his arm-pit there is no need for the man to raise his arm higher than he does when hoeing. If, as a result, the priest cannot see it the man must be declared clean.
- In the case of an eruption in the concealed region of the genitals.
- When one does not bend too low (cf. prev. n. but one mut. mut.).
- In the case of an eruption in her arm-pit (cf. prev. n. but five mut. mut).
- The reading in the parallel passage in Suk. 6a is 'b. Bar Hana'.
- Since it is possible to tie it so closely that no water could penetrate to all its parts.
three hairs1 constitute no interposition;2 but I do not know the ruling in the case of two'. R. Johanan, however, stated, 'We have only this one principle: R. Isaac said, According to traditional law3 an interposition on its4 major part5 to which a man objects constitutes an interposition but one which he does not mind constitutes no interposition; but the Rabbis ruled that an interposition on its4 greater part shall constitute an interposition, even when the man does not mind it, as a preventive measure against the possibility of allowing an interposition on its major part to which the man does object; and they also ruled that an interposition on its minor part to which a man objects shall constitute an interposition as a preventive measure against the possibility of allowing an interposition on its major part to which a man objects.6 But why should no prohibition be enacted also against an interposition on its lesser part, to which one does not object, as a preventive measure against the possibility of allowing an interposition over the lesser part to which one does object?7 — This ruling itself8 is but a preventive measure, shall we go so far9 as to institute a preventive measure against the possibility of infringing a preventive measure?10
Rab ruled: If a menstruant performs immersion at 'the proper time11 she may do it only at night12 but if she performs it after the proper time13 she may do it either in the day time or at night.14 R. Johanan ruled: Whether at the proper time or after the proper time a menstruant may perform immersion only at night, on account of the possibility of her daughter's following her lead.15 Rab, moreover, also withdrew his ruling; for R. Hiyya b. Ashi citing Rab laid down: Whether at the proper time or after the proper time13 a menstruant may perform immersion only at night on account of the possibility of her daughter's following her lead.15 R. Idi ordained at Narash that immersion shall be performed on the eighth day16 on account of lions.17 R. Aha b. Jacob issued a similar ordinance at Papunia on account of thieves.17 Rab Judah did the same at Pumbeditha on account of the cold. Rabbah18 acted similarly at Mahoza on account of the guards of the city gates.19 Said R. Papa20 to Raba,21 Consider: At the present time the Rabbis have put all menstruants on the same level as zabahs,22 why then should they not allow them23 to perform immersion in the daytime of the seventh day?24 — This cannot be allowed on account of the following ruling of R. Simeon. For it was taught: After that she shall be clean,25 'after' means after all of them, implying that no uncleanness may intervene between them; but R. Simeon stated: After that she shall be clean24 implies that after the act26 she shall27 be clean, but the Sages have ruled that it was forbidden to do so in case she might thereby land in a doubtful situation.28
R. Huna ruled: A woman29 may wash her head on a Sunday30 and perform immersion on the following Tuesday,31 since similarly she32 is allowed to wash her head33 on a Friday34 and undergo immersion on the following Saturday night.35 A woman may wash her head on a Sunday and undergo immersion on the following Wednesday, since similarly she36 is allowed to wash her head37 on a Friday34 and undergo immersion in the night following a festival that occurred on a Sunday. A woman may wash her head on a Sunday and undergo immersion on the following Thursday, since similarly she may wash her head on a Friday and undergo immersion in the night following the two festival days of the New Year that happened to fall immediately after a Saturday. R. Hisda, however, stated: In all these cases38 we rule as mentioned39 but we do not draw the inference of 'since similarly'; for where [the avoidance of an interval] is possible an interval must be avoided,40 and only where this is impossible41 may an interval be allowed.42 R. Yemar, however, stated: We may even draw the inferences of 'since similarly'43 except in the case where a woman is permitted to wash her head on a Sunday and undergo immersion on the following Thursday, for the parallel of the night following the two festival days of the New Year that happened to fall immediately after a Saturday does not hold, since it is possible for the woman to wash her head and undergo immersion in the same night.44 Meremar in his discourse laid down: The law is in agreement with R. Hisda45 but46 in accordance with the interpretation of R. Yemar.47
The question was raised: May a woman wash her head at night48 and perform immersion the same night?49 — Mar Zutra forbids this, but R. Hinena of Sura permits it. Said R. Adda to R. Hinena of Sura:50 Did not the following incident51 actually occur52 to the wife of the exilarch Abba Mari? She having had some quarrel53 R. Nahman b. Isaac proceeded to pacify her, and when she said to him, 'What is the hurry now?54
Original footnotes renumbered.
- Which cannot be tied very closely.
- Though they were knotted.
- Debar Torah, lit., 'the word of the (oral) law'.
- One's hair.
- When each single hair is knotted.
- Sc. while traditional law restricts a disqualifying interposition to (a) its extension over the major part of one's hair and (b) the man's objection to it, the Rabbis regard (a) without (b) or (b) without (a) also as a disqualifying interposition.
- Both cases involving a lesser part.
- The one forbidding an interposition over the lesser part to which one objects.
- Lit., 'we shall arise
- Certainly not.
- On the seventh day.
- Before nightfall the seven prescribed unclean days have not been completed.
- On the eighth day.
- Cf. prev. n. but one mut. mut.
- Not knowing the difference between an immersion on the seventh and one on the eighth she, following the example of her mother on an eighth day, would perform immersion in the day time on a seventh also.
- Instead of the night following the seventh day.
- That the woman might encounter at night.
- So with old edd. and Maharsha. Cur. edd., Raba.
- Who were men of doubtful morality. Aliter: Dangerous caverns on the road to the ritual bath.
- MS.M., Papi.
- So with Alfasi and Bomb, ed. Cur. edd. insert 'and to Abaye'.
- Who must allow seven clean days to pass before they can attain cleanness,
- As in the case of a zabah
- And should one happen to be no zabah but a menstruant her uncleanness had in fact terminated seven days earlier.
- Lev. XV, 28.
- Of counting the seventh day, even before the day had ended.
- On performing immersion.
- Of cleanness. She might have intercourse on that day and experience a discharge subsequently before its termination, in which case her counting as well as her immersion must be deemed invalid, and her intercourse has thus taken place during a period of doubtful cleanness.
- About to undergo immersion.
- Lit., 'on the first day of the week'.
- Sc. an interval of a day may be allowed between the washing of her head and her immersion.
- Whose immersion is due on a Saturday night.
- An act forbidden on a Saturday which is the Sabbath day. This question is asked on the view that the washing of the head may not be performed on the same night as the immersion, v. infra.
- Lit., 'Sabbath eve'.
- Lit., at the goings out of the Sabbath'. As an interval of one day must inevitably be allowed in this case (cf. prev. nn.) it is also allowed where the interval is merely a matter of the woman's convenience.
- Whose immersion is due on the termination of a festival day that fell on a Sunday.
- An act forbidden on a festival day.
- Where immersion is due on a night that followed a Sabbath or a festival day on which the washing of one's head is forbidden.
- That an interval of a day or more is permitted between the time of the washing of the head and immersion.
- Lit., 'possible'.
- As in the cases where the days preceding the nights of immersion are ones on which the washing of the head is forbidden.
- Lit., 'it is not possible'.
- Sc. an interval may be allowed even on account of a woman's personal convenience, since she is allowed a similar interval when the day preceding the night of her immersion is one on which it is forbidden to wash one's head.
- The one following the second festival day of the New Year. Had she been allowed to wash her head on the preceding Friday the interval between the washing and the immersion would have been too long; hence it is preferable that the washing be done in the same night as the immersion. As a long interval of three day is not allowed even in such a case, where the washing of the head on the day preceding the night of the immersion is impossible, it cannot be allowed, with much more reason, where the interval is no necessity but a matter of convenience.
- That 'we do not draw the inference of since similarly' and that, consequently, no interval for the sake of a woman's personal convenience may be allowed between the washing of her head and her immersion.
- Though R. Hisda allows an interval where the day preceding the immersion is one on which labour is forbidden.
- Who allows the interval only in the first two cases but not in the third case where the immersion is due on the termination of the New Year festival that happened to fall on a Sunday and a Monday.
- The night in which her immersion is due.
- Is she, it is asked, likely to pay scant attention to the former on account of her hurry to get through with her immersion?
- Var. lec., R. Adda of Sura to Mar Zutra (BaH.).
- Which proves that washing the head and immersion may take place the same night.
- Lit., 'was not thus the incident'.
- With her husband, as a result of which she refused to perform immersion.
- At night.