[lasted] twenty-six [years], as it is written, Twelve years they served Chedorlaomer, and thirteen years they rebelled. And in the fourteenth year, etc.1
Raba b. Mehasia also said in the name of R. Hama b. Goria in Rab's name: Every city whose roofs are higher than the synagogue will ultimately be destroyed, as it is said, to exalt the house of our God, and to repair the ruins thereof.2 Yet that refers only to houses; but as for towers and turrets, we have no objection. R. Ashi said: I achieved for the town of Mehasia3 that it was not destroyed.4 But it was destroyed!5 — It was not destroyed as a result of that sin.
Raba b. Mehasia also said in the name of R. Hama b. Goria in Rab's name: [Let one be] under an Ishmaelite but not under a 'stranger';6 under a stranger but not under a Gueber;7 under a Parsee but not under a scholar; under a scholar but not under an orphan or a widow.8
Raba b. Mehasia also said in the name of R. Hama b. Goria in Rab's name: Rather any complaint, but not a complaint of the bowels; any pain, but not heart pain; any ache, but not head ache; any evil, but not an evil wife!
Raba b. Mehasia also said in the name of R. Hama b. Goria in Rab's name: If all seas were ink, reeds pens, the heavens parchment, and all men writers, they would not suffice to write down the intricacies of government. Said R. Mesharshia, What verse [teaches this]? The heaven for height, and the earth for depth, and the heart of kings is unsearchable.9
Raba b. Mehasia also said in the name of R. Hama b. Goria in Rab's name: Fasting is as potent against a dream as fire against tow.10 Said R. Hisda: Providing it is on that very day. R. Joseph added: And even on the Sabbath.11
R. Joshua son of R. Idi chanced on the home of R. Ashi. A third grown calf12 was prepared for him and he was invited, 'Master, partake somewhat.' 'I am engaged in a fast,' he replied. 'And do you not accept Rab Judah's ruling in Rab's name: One may borrow his fast and repay it?13 'It is a fast on account of a dream,' he answered, 'and Raba b. Mehasia said in the name of R. Hama b. Goria in Rab's name: Fasting is as potent against a dream as fire against tow; and R. Hisda said, Providing it is on that very day; and R. Joseph added: And even on the Sabbath.'
YET IF THEY BEGAN, THEY NEED NOT BREAK OFF. ONE MUST BREAK OFF FOR THE READING OF THE SHEMA', [BUT NOT FOR PRAYER]. But the first clause teaches, THEY NEED NOT BREAK OFF? — The second clause refers to study.14 For it was taught: If companions [scholars] are engaged in studying, they must break off for the reading of the shema', but not for prayer. R. Johanan said: This was taught only of such as R. Simeon b. Yohai and his companions, whose study was their profession; but we15 must break off both for the reading of the shema' and for prayer. But it was taught: Just as they do not break off for the service, so do they not break off for the reading of the shema'? — That was taught in reference to the intercalation of the year.16 For R. Adda b. Ahabah said, and the Elders of Hagrunia17 recited likewise: R. Eleazar b. Zadok said: When we were engaged in intercalating the year at Yabneh,18 we made no break for the reading of the shema' or prayer.
MISHNAH. A TAILOR MUST NOT GO OUT WITH HIS NEEDLE NEAR NIGHTFALL,19 LEST HE FORGET AND GO OUT,20 NOR A SCRIBE WITH HIS QUILL; AND ONE MAY NOT SEARCH HIS GARMENTS [FOR VERMIN, NOR READ BY THE LIGHT OF A LAMP.21 IN TRUTH IT WAS SAID, THE HAZZAN22 MAY SEE WHERE THE CHILDREN READ,23 BUT HE HIMSELF MUST NOT READ. SIMILARLY IT WAS SAID, A ZAB MUST NOT DINE TOGETHER WITH A ZABAH,24 AS IT MAY LEAD TO SIN.25
GEMARA. We learnt elsewhere: One must not stand in private ground and drink in public ground, or on public ground and drink in private ground;26 but if he inserts his head and the greater part [of his body] into the place where he drinks, it is permitted;
and the same applies to a wine vat.1 The scholars propounded: What of a karmelith?2 — Abaye said: It is precisely the same. Raba said: That itself3 is only a preventive measure:4 are we to arise and enact a preventive measure5 to safeguard6 another preventive measure!7
Abaye said, Whence do I say it? Because it is taught, and the same applies to a wine vat. Now what is this wine vat? If private ground, it has [already] been taught: if public ground, it has [also] been taught. Hence it must surely refer to a karmelith. Raba said: 'And the same applies to a wine vat' is [stated] in reference to tithes; and R. Shesheth said likewise, 'And the same applies to a wine vat' refers to tithes. For we learnt: One may drink [wine] over the vat in [a dilution of] both hot or cold [water], and is exempt [from tithing]: this is R. Meir's view. R. Eleazar son of R. Zadok holds him liable. But the Sages maintain: For a hot [dilution] he is liable; for a cold one he is exempt, because the rest is returned.8
We learnt: A TAILOR MUST NOT GO OUT WITH HIS NEEDLE NEAR NIGHTFALL, LEST HE FORGET HIMSELF AND GO OUT. Surely that means that it is stuck in his garment?9 — No: it means that he holds it in his hand.10 Come and hear: A tailor must not go out with a needle sticking in his garment. Surely that refers to the eve of Sabbath? — No; that was taught with reference to the Sabbath. But it was taught, A tailor must not go out with a needle sticking in his garment on the eve of the Sabbath just before sunset? — The author of that is R. Judah, who maintained, An artisan is liable [for carrying out an object] in the manner of his trade.11 For it was taught: A tailor must not go out with a needle stuck in his garment, nor a carpenter with a chip behind his ear,12 nor a [wool] corder with the cord in his ear, nor a weaver with the cotton13 in his ear, nor a dyer with a [colour] sample round his neck, nor a money-changer with a denar14 in his ear; and if he does go forth, he is not liable, though it is forbidden: this is R. Meir's view.15 R. Judah said: An artisan is liable [for carrying out an object] in the manner of his trade, but all other people are exempt.
One [Baraitha] taught: A zab must not go out with his pouch;16 yet if he goes out he is not liable, though it is forbidden. And another taught: A zab must not go out with his pouch, and if he goes out he is liable to a sin-offering!-Said R. Joseph, There is no difficulty: the former is R. Meir; the latter R. Judah. Abaye said to him. When have you heard R. Meir [to give this ruling], in respect to something which it is not natural [to carry thus]; but have you heard him in respect to something which demands that mode [of carrying]? For should you not say so, then if an unskilled worker hollows out a measure from a log on the Sabbath, would he indeed be exempt on R. Meir's view?17 Rather, said R. Hamnuna, there is no difficulty; the one refers to a zab who has had two attacks,18 the other to a zab who has had three attacks.19 Now, why does a zab of two attacks differ in that he is liable? [Presumably] because he requires it for examination!20 But then a zab of three attacks also requires it for counting?21 It holds good only for that very day.22 Yet still he needs it to prevent the soiling of his garments? — Said R. Zera, This agrees with the following Tanna, who maintains, The prevention of soiling has no [positive] importance.23 For we learnt: If one overturns a basin on a wall, in order that the basin be washed [by the rain], it falls within [the terms of], 'and if it [water] be put [etc.]'; if in order
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