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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate ‘Abodah Zarah
R. Papa said: If a heathen [was holding] the barrel and an Israelite the cask,8 the wine is prohibited. On what ground? — Because [the pouring] results from the effort of the heathen. If, however, an Israelite [was holding] the barrel and a heathen the cask, the wine is permitted; but should [the heathen] tilt it sideways it is prohibited.9
R. Papa said: If a heathen carries a skin-bottle [of wine] and an Israelite follows behind him,10 should it be full it is permitted because [the wine] does not shake,11 but should it not be full it is prohibited because there is the possibility of shaking. In the case, however, of a full cask [being so carried],12 it is prohibited because he might have touched it, but should it not be full it is permitted because there is less likelihood that he touched it. R. Ashi said: In the case of a skin-bottle, whether full or not, it is permitted. On what ground? — Because such is not the way of rendering wine nesek.13
[Wine] from a press where beams are used14 is permitted15 by R. Papi but prohibited by R. Ashi, or according to another version, by R. Shimi b. Ashi. In the case of direct action16 there is certainly no difference of opinion that it is prohibited, the difference being over the circumstance where there was indirect action.17 Some declare that in the case of indirect action there is certainly no difference of opinion that it is permitted, the difference being over the circumstance where there was direct action. An instance of such indirect action occurred and R. Jacob of Nehar-Pekod18 prohibited it.
It once happened that a cask
‘Abodah Zarah 60bsplit lengthwise, and a heathen sprang forward and clasped it in his arms. Rafram b. Papa — another version is, R. Huna the son of Rab Joshua — permitted it to be sold to heathens. This rule applies only when it split lengthwise, but if crosswise it is permitted even to be drunk [by Israelites].1 On what ground? — [The heathen] only did what a brick might have done.2
A heathen was once found standing in [the empty] wine-press [of an Israelite]. [On being consulted] R. Ashi said: If it was sufficiently moist to moisten other objects, it needs to be rinsed with water and rubbed dry, otherwise mere rinsing is sufficient.
MISHNAH. IF A HEATHEN WAS FOUND STANDING BY THE SIDE OF A VAT OF WINE, SHOULD HE HAVE A LIEN UPON IT THEN IT IS PROHIBITED;3 BUT SHOULD HE NOT HAVE A LIEN UPON IT THEN IT IS PERMITTED. IF [A HEATHEN] FELL INTO A VAT AND CLIMBED OUT,4 OR MEASURED IT WITH A ROD, OR FLICKED OUT A HORNET WITH A ROD, OR TAPPED ON THE TOP OF A FROTHING CASK5 — IT HAPPENED SO WITH ALL THESE CIRCUMSTANCES, AND [THE RABBIS] SAID THAT IT MAY BE SOLD, WHILE R. SIMEON PERMITS IT.6 IF HE TOOK A CASK, AND IN HIS ANGER THREW IT INTO THE VAT — THIS ACTUALLY HAPPENED AND [THE RABBIS] DECLARED IT FIT [FOR DRINKING].
GEMARA. Samuel said: [The first clause of the Mishnah only applies] when he has a lien on that wine [which is in the vat].7 R. Ashi said: This is also implied in the [next] Mishnah where we learn: If [an Israelite] prepares a heathen's wine in a state of ritual purity8 and leaves it in [the latter's] domain who writes for him, 'I have received the money from you,'9 then [the wine] is permitted.10 If, however, the Israelite wished to remove it and [the heathen] refuses to let it go until he paid him — this actually happened in Beth-Shan and [the Rabbis] prohibited it.11 The reason [why they prohibited it] was because he refused to let it go; hence if he had agreed to let it go, it would have been permitted. Conclude, then, that we require that the lien should be on that wine [for it to be prohibited]! Draw that conclusion.
IF [A HEATHEN] FELL INTO A VAT AND CLIMBED OUT. R. Papa said: [The teaching of the Mishnah that the wine may be sold] applies only to the circumstance when he is brought out dead, but if he climbed out alive it is prohibited. On what ground? — Because it would then be to him like an idolatrous feast-day.12
OR MEASURED IT WITH A ROD … IT HAPPENED SO WITH ALL THESE CIRCUMSTANCES, AND [THE RABBIS] SAID THAT IT MAY BE SOLD, WHILE R. SIMEON PERMITS IT. R. Adda b. Ahabah said: May blessings alight upon the head of R. Simeon, because when he permits he permits even the drinking [of the wine] and when he prohibits he prohibits it for all use!13 R. Hiyya the son of Abba b. Nahmani reported that R. Hisda said in the name of Rab — another version is, R. Hisda said in the name of Ze'iri: The halachah agrees with R. Simeon. Others declare that R. Hisda said: Abba b. Hanan remarked to me that Ze'iri said: The halachah agrees with R. Simeon. But the halachah is not in accord with R. Simeon.
IF HE TOOK A CASK AND IN HIS ANGER THREW IT INTO THE VAT — THIS ACTUALLY HAPPENED AND [THE RABBIS] DECLARED IT FIT [FOR DRINKING]. R. Ashi said: Whatever is rendered unclean by a zab14 makes wine [in a similar circumstance] nesek by a heathen, and whatever is not rendered unclean by a zab makes wine not to be nesek by a heathen. R. Huna quoted against R. Ashi: IF HE TOOK A CASK AND IN HIS ANGER THREW IT INTO THE VAT — THIS ACTUALLY HAPPENED IN BETH-SHAN15 AND [THE RABBIS] DECLARED IT FIT [FOR DRINKING]! [Consequently if he did this] in anger it is [fit for drinking], but if he had not done it in anger it would not [be fit]!16 —
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